Ya sabemos que los intestinos cuentan con su propio sistema nervioso, el SNE (sistema nervioso entérico), con más de 500 millones de neuronas. Los científicos estudian ahora cómo se comunican las células nerviosas del SNE con las neuronas del cerebro a través del «eje intestino-cerebro». Las últimas investigaciones en la materia muestran que lo que sucede en el medio intestinal, así como las actividades de las bacterias que lo habitan, influye en las acciones de las neuronas del SNE.

gut-brain-axis_es

 

 

Referencias:

Furness JB, Poole DP. Nonruminant nutrition symposium: Involvement of gut neural and endocrine systems in pathological disorders of the digestive tract. Journal of Animal Science. 2015; 90(4): 1203-1212. doi:10.2527/jas.2011-4825

Zhou L, Foster JA. Psychobiotics and the gut–brain axis: in the pursuit of happiness. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment. 2015; 11: 715–723. doi https://dx.doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S61997

Kunze WA, Mao Y, Wang B, et al. Lactobacillus reuteri enhances excitability of colonic AH neurons by inhibiting calcium-dependent potassium channel opening. J. Cell. Mol. Med. 2009; 13(8B): 2261-2270. doi:10.1111/j.1582-4934.2009.00686.x

Forsythe P, Bienenstock J, Kunze WA. Vagal Pathways for Microbiome-Brain-Gut Axis Communication. In: Lyte M & Cryan JF, eds. Microbial Endocrinology: The Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis in Health and Disease. New York: Springer; 2014:115-133.

Dinan TG, Cryan JF. The impact of gut microbiota on brain and behaviour: implications for psychiatry. Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition & Metabolic Care. 2015; 18(6): 552–558. doi: 10.1097/MCO.0000000000000221

Bourassaa MW, Alima I, Bultmanc SJ, Ratan RR. Butyrate, neuroepigenetics and the gut microbiome: Can a high fiber diet improve brain health? Neuroscience Letters. 2016; 625(20): 56–63. doi:10.1016/j.neulet.2016.02.009

Luczynski P, Whelan SO, O’Sullivan C, Clarke G, et al. Adult microbiota-deficient mice have distinct dendritic morphological changes: differential effects in the amygdala and hippocampus. European Journal of Neuroscience. 2016; 44(1). doi: 10.1111/ejn.13291

Bercik P, Denou E, Collins J, Jackson W, et al. The Intestinal Microbiota Affect Central Levels of Brain-Derived Neurotropic Factor and Behavior in Mice. Gastroenterology. 2011; 141(2): 599-609. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2011.04.052

Li W, Dowd SE, Scurlock B, Acosta-Martinez V, Lyte M. Memory and learning behavior in mice is temporally associated with diet-induced alterations in gut bacteria. Physiology & Behavior. 2009; 96(4-5); 557-567. doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2008.12.004

Mayer EA, Padua D, Tillisch K. Altered brain-gut axis in autism: comorbidity or causative mechanisms? Bioessays. 2014; 36(10):933-9. doi: 10.1002/bies.201400075.

Tillisch K, Labus J, Kilpatrick L, et al. Consumption of Fermented Milk Product With Probiotic Modulates Brain Activity. Gastroenterology. 2013; 144(7). doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2013.02.043

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