Little is known about the relationship between diet, the composition and function of the gut microbiota and clinical symptoms of IBS. New findings identify how IBS symptom severity is related to a higher intake of foods with poor nutritional quality and gut microbiome features at both subspecies level and metabolic pathways involved in carbohydrate metabolism.

Beyond live microorganisms, inanimate microorganisms and their components can also confer a health benefit on the host. A panel of experts under the auspices of the International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics (ISAPP) updates the definition and scope of postbiotics.