Here are our editors’ picks of some of the year’s most relevant developments in gut microbiome science, including topics that range from obesity and metabolic health to the gut-brain axis.

Gut-brain axis

14 Dec 2016

by GMFH Editing Team

Scientists are investigating how ENS nerve cells communicate with brain neurons through the ‘gut-brain axis’.

At the Gut Microbiota for Health World Summit 2016 that was held in Miami (USA) March 5-6, 2016, leading experts presented up-to-date evidence on clinical applications of gut microbiota and its mechanisms and role in human health and disease.

It is already known that a reduction in gut microbial richness is the hallmark change of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, but how this dysbiosis is established in the HIV-exposed uninfected infant is poorly understood. A recent cross-sectional study, led by Dr. Grace M. Aldrovandi from the Children’s Hospital Los Angeles in Los Angeles (USA), suggests that perturbations in the infant gut microbiome may explain the greater risk of morbidity and mortality in uninfected babies born to HIV-positive mothers.