A new study by a group of scientists from Danone Nutricia Research (the Netherlands), the Laboratory of Microbiology at Wageningen University (the Netherlands), and the Department of Medicine at Imperial College London (United Kingdom) explored how the gut microbiota tracks eczema development in early life—and also whether gut microbiota composition was modulated by a prebiotic early-life dietary intervention.

It is already known that a reduction in gut microbial richness is the hallmark change of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, but how this dysbiosis is established in the HIV-exposed uninfected infant is poorly understood. A recent cross-sectional study, led by Dr. Grace M. Aldrovandi from the Children’s Hospital Los Angeles in Los Angeles (USA), suggests that perturbations in the infant gut microbiome may explain the greater risk of morbidity and mortality in uninfected babies born to HIV-positive mothers.

A recent study, led by Dr. Tine Rask Licht, head of the Research Group for Microbiology and Immunology from the National Food Institute at Technical University of Denmark, found that the development and establishment of the infant gut microbiota at 9 months of age is primarily driven by the transition to family foods, independently of maternal obesity.