This important paper increased our scientific understanding of the mechanism by which a host’s circadian clock can affect metabolism and health. Leone, et al. showed that both gut microbiota composition and metabolite production fluctuated daily in mice and that these changes were associated with host circadian rhythms and were modifiable by diet.
Gut microbiota thus may play a key role in maintaining host circadian rhythms. Since disturbed circadian rhythms are associated with increased appetite and susceptibility to metabolic syndrome, and since high-fat diets adversely impact circadian signalling and gut microbes, the microbiota may be an important mediator between circadian rhythms and metabolic syndrome.
Leone V, et al. (2015). Effects of Diurnal Variation of Gut Microbes and High-Fat Feeding on Host Circadian Clock Function and Metabolism. Cell Host & Microbe 17(5), pp. 681–689.