Recent research has shown that the effects of pharmacological treatments need to be disentangled from the effects of specific diseases on the human microbiota, as drug therapy effects may be a potential confound in human microbiome studies. However, to what extent drug treatment effectiveness is related to changes in gut microbiota composition and functionality is poorly studied.
The researchers determined whether treatment with celecoxib, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that is a selective cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitor used for relieving pain and inflammation, altered the luminal microbiota and its metabolites in association with reducing intestinal polyp burden in mice.
Celecoxib oral administration for 10 weeks markedly reduced intestinal polyp burden and size, while altering microbiota in both faeces and ileum in mice. Specifically, drug treatment decreased Lactobacillaceae and Bifidobacteriaceae and increased Coriobacteriaceae.
On the other hand, celecoxib treatment altered the faecal metabolomic profile by strongly reducing many faecal metabolites related to carcinogenesis, including glucose, amino acids, nucleotides, and lipids. These changes in metabolites may have contributed to reduced cell proliferation, as celecoxib treatment reduced proliferation in the base of normal-appearing ileal and colonic crypts.
Andreu Prados Andreu Prados holds a Bachelor of Science Degree in Pharmacy & Human Nutrition and Dietetics. Science writer specialised in gut microbiota and probiotics, working also as lecturer and consultant in nutrition and healthcare. Follow Andreu on Twitter @andreuprados