Category : Gut Microbiota

Emerging evidence shows the involvement of our gut microbiome in conditions apparently unrelated to the gut ecosystem. And it seems that is the case with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), which is a heterogeneous endocrine disorder that is often accompanied by altered insulin activity. Recent studies have associated alterations in gut microbiome composition and barrier function with imbalances in the stool…

GMFH Editing Team
GMFH Editing Team

Emerging evidence shows the involvement of our gut microbiome in conditions apparently unrelated to the gut ecosystem. And it seems that is the case with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), which is a heterogeneous endocrine disorder that is often accompanied by altered insulin activity. Recent studies have associated alterations in gut microbiome composition and barrier function with imbalances in the stool…

GMFH Editing Team
GMFH Editing Team

The source of variation in the composition and function of the microbiome within and between species is yet to be fully understood. Although genetic background and diet have been suggested as major drivers of gut microbiome composition, the role of genetics versus environmental factors in driving gut microbiome variation in closely related primates remains unclear. A new study by Dr.…

GMFH Editing Team
GMFH Editing Team

The source of variation in the composition and function of the microbiome within and between species is yet to be fully understood. Although genetic background and diet have been suggested as major drivers of gut microbiome composition, the role of genetics versus environmental factors in driving gut microbiome variation in closely related primates remains unclear. A new study by Dr.…

GMFH Editing Team
GMFH Editing Team

Traditionally, microbial communities that inhabit the human body and surrounding environments have been characterized through culturing on selective plates. However, this approach shows a low sensitivity and does not allow for exploring the unculturable fraction of the microbiome that may account for between 60% and 80% of the observable bacteria. Although culture-independent methods based on characterizing the 16S ribosomal ribonucleic…

GMFH Editing Team
GMFH Editing Team

Traditionally, microbial communities that inhabit the human body and surrounding environments have been characterized through culturing on selective plates. However, this approach shows a low sensitivity and does not allow for exploring the unculturable fraction of the microbiome that may account for between 60% and 80% of the observable bacteria. Although culture-independent methods based on characterizing the 16S ribosomal ribonucleic…

GMFH Editing Team
GMFH Editing Team

The fact some people respond to a drug treatment while for others the same treatment is totally ineffective may depend on our gut microbiota. In other words, after a drug is administered orally, it could either be absorbed into the bloodstream and metabolized by the liver, or it remains in the intestine where it can be metabolized by the gut…

GMFH Editing Team
GMFH Editing Team

The fact some people respond to a drug treatment while for others the same treatment is totally ineffective may depend on our gut microbiota. In other words, after a drug is administered orally, it could either be absorbed into the bloodstream and metabolized by the liver, or it remains in the intestine where it can be metabolized by the gut…

GMFH Editing Team
GMFH Editing Team

Maternal physiology and metabolism during pregnancy adjust so the fetus may grow healthy. As part of these changes, the gut microbiota evolves towards a pro-inflammatory profile, which contributes to a healthy pregnancy. Even so, the extent to which gut microbiota alterations induced by pregnancy and lactation may change autoimmune mechanisms that are involved in disease has not yet been explored.…

GMFH Editing Team
GMFH Editing Team

Maternal physiology and metabolism during pregnancy adjust so the fetus may grow healthy. As part of these changes, the gut microbiota evolves towards a pro-inflammatory profile, which contributes to a healthy pregnancy. Even so, the extent to which gut microbiota alterations induced by pregnancy and lactation may change autoimmune mechanisms that are involved in disease has not yet been explored.…

GMFH Editing Team
GMFH Editing Team

The functional metagenomic screening of the human gut microbiome gives us a better understanding of how microbial genes shape almost all aspects of physiology. Although an important number of microbial species have yet to be characterized, next generation approaches have increased the number of gut microorganism genomes that can be mapped. For instance, analysis of the gut metagenome has provided…

GMFH Editing Team
GMFH Editing Team

The functional metagenomic screening of the human gut microbiome gives us a better understanding of how microbial genes shape almost all aspects of physiology. Although an important number of microbial species have yet to be characterized, next generation approaches have increased the number of gut microorganism genomes that can be mapped. For instance, analysis of the gut metagenome has provided…

GMFH Editing Team
GMFH Editing Team

The microorganisms inhabiting the human gut can alter the chemical structures of drugs, leading to changes in their bioavailability, toxicity and efficacy. Although the gut microbial enzymes responsible for these chemical modifications are poorly understood, microbial mediation of therapeutic effects has been reported for metformin, chemotherapeutic drugs and antidepressants. A gut microbial enzymatic pathway is involved in metabolizing the drug…

Andreu Prados
Andreu Prados holds a Bachelor of Science Degree in Pharmacy & Human Nutrition and Dietetics. Science writer specialised in gut microbiota and probiotics, working also as lecturer and consultant in nutrition and healthcare. Follow Andreu on Twitter @andreuprados

The microorganisms inhabiting the human gut can alter the chemical structures of drugs, leading to changes in their bioavailability, toxicity and efficacy. Although the gut microbial enzymes responsible for these chemical modifications are poorly understood, microbial mediation of therapeutic effects has been reported for metformin, chemotherapeutic drugs and antidepressants. A gut microbial enzymatic pathway is involved in metabolizing the drug…

Andreu Prados
Andreu Prados holds a Bachelor of Science Degree in Pharmacy & Human Nutrition and Dietetics. Science writer specialised in gut microbiota and probiotics, working also as lecturer and consultant in nutrition and healthcare. Follow Andreu on Twitter @andreuprados

Preterm infants are at a high risk of growth failure that may affect their long-term health outcomes. Different factors have been involved in the etiology of postnatal growth failure in preterm infants, but despite research efforts regarding clinical management, growth failure rates continue to increase. Although differences in gut microbiota composition have been found in preterm infants compared with full-term…

GMFH Editing Team
GMFH Editing Team

Preterm infants are at a high risk of growth failure that may affect their long-term health outcomes. Different factors have been involved in the etiology of postnatal growth failure in preterm infants, but despite research efforts regarding clinical management, growth failure rates continue to increase. Although differences in gut microbiota composition have been found in preterm infants compared with full-term…

GMFH Editing Team
GMFH Editing Team

The modification of the human gut microbiota’s composition and function is one of the plausible mechanisms that has just recently started being explored in relation to how exercise affects health. Although gut microbiome composition tends to show higher variability under environmental pressures, its diversity functionality tends to remain consistent within and across subjects. In professional athletes, however, little is known…

GMFH Editing Team
GMFH Editing Team

The modification of the human gut microbiota’s composition and function is one of the plausible mechanisms that has just recently started being explored in relation to how exercise affects health. Although gut microbiome composition tends to show higher variability under environmental pressures, its diversity functionality tends to remain consistent within and across subjects. In professional athletes, however, little is known…

GMFH Editing Team
GMFH Editing Team

The enteric nervous system (ENS)—also called “our second brain”—is an autonomous part of the nervous system consisting of in the myenteric and submucosal plexus within the wall of the gastrointestinal tract. Comprising primary afferent neurons, interneurons and motor neurons, alongside intestinal cells involved in immune responses and endocrine and paracrine functions, it is involved in the sensory-motor control of the…

Paul Enck
Prof. Dr. Paul Enck, Director of Research, Dept. of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, University Hospital Tübingen, Germany. His main interests are gut functions in health and disease, including functional and inflammatory bowel disorders, the role of the gut microbiota, regulation of eating and food intake and its disorders, of nausea, vomiting and motion sickness, and the psychophysiology and neurobiology of the placebo response, with specific emphasis on age and gender contributions. He has published more than 170 original data paper in scientific, peer-reviewed journals, and more than 250 book chapters and review articles. He is board member/treasurer of the European Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility and of the German Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility, and has served as reviewer for many international journals and grant agencies.

The enteric nervous system (ENS)—also called “our second brain”—is an autonomous part of the nervous system consisting of in the myenteric and submucosal plexus within the wall of the gastrointestinal tract. Comprising primary afferent neurons, interneurons and motor neurons, alongside intestinal cells involved in immune responses and endocrine and paracrine functions, it is involved in the sensory-motor control of the…

Paul Enck
Prof. Dr. Paul Enck, Director of Research, Dept. of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, University Hospital Tübingen, Germany. His main interests are gut functions in health and disease, including functional and inflammatory bowel disorders, the role of the gut microbiota, regulation of eating and food intake and its disorders, of nausea, vomiting and motion sickness, and the psychophysiology and neurobiology of the placebo response, with specific emphasis on age and gender contributions. He has published more than 170 original data paper in scientific, peer-reviewed journals, and more than 250 book chapters and review articles. He is board member/treasurer of the European Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility and of the German Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility, and has served as reviewer for many international journals and grant agencies.