A recent review by Dr. Stacey Lockyer from the British Nutrition Foundation in London (United Kingdom) and Dr. Anne Nugent from the University College Dublin in Dublin (Ireland) summarises reported health effects of RS and explores the potential mechanisms of action that underpin them.

In a recent paper by Perry et al., researchers describe an investigation into the putative mechanisms by which gut microbiota alterations may lead to obesity, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome. Authors describe increased production of acetate by altered gut microbiota in rats. They link this to activation of the parasympathetic nervous system, increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, higher ghrelin secretion, hyperphagia, and obesity. Thus, they point to increased acetate production as a driver of metabolic syndrome.

The International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics, in its 15th year, held its 2016 Annual Meeting June 7th to 9th in Turku, Finland. Prof. Seppo Salminen, who has more publications on probiotics than any other researcher globally, was the local

Childhood undernutrition affects millions of children worldwide and has long-term severe effects, which include stunted growth and impaired cognitive development, among others. A recent study, led by Dr. Jeffrey Gordon from the Centre for Genome Sciences and Systems Biology at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis (USA), found that gut bacteria could be considered a useful tool for ameliorating the harmful side effects of malnutrition in mice.