Now a recent study, led by Dr. Nicola Santoro from the Department of Paediatrics at Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut (USA), has found that the gut microbiota of obese youth may drive a higher accumulation of energy than that of lean adolescents through an elevated production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and a higher capability to oxidize carbohydrates.

A recent randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial, led by Dr. Ellen Blaak from the Department of Human Biology at Maastricht University Medical Centre in Maastricht (The Netherlands), has found that a 7-day antibiotic treatment does not affect host metabolism in obese humans in the short term, despite profound changes in gut microbial diversity and composition.

A recent study, led by Dr. Wendy A. Henderson from the National Institute of Nursing Research at National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Bethesda (USA), and co-authored by Research Fellow Dr. Nicolaas Fourie, has found that the oral microbiota could be a useful source of information in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).

In a recent paper by Perry et al., researchers describe an investigation into the putative mechanisms by which gut microbiota alterations may lead to obesity, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome. Authors describe increased production of acetate by altered gut microbiota in rats. They link this to activation of the parasympathetic nervous system, increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, higher ghrelin secretion, hyperphagia, and obesity. Thus, they point to increased acetate production as a driver of metabolic syndrome.

A recent study, led by Dr. Menghui Zhang from the State Key Laboratory of Microbial Metabolism at Shanghai Jiao Tong University (China), has shown that gut resistome of obese children is reduced after a dietary intervention.

A recent study, led by Dr. Tine Rask Licht, head of the Research Group for Microbiology and Immunology from the National Food Institute at Technical University of Denmark, found that the development and establishment of the infant gut microbiota at 9 months of age is primarily driven by the transition to family foods, independently of maternal obesity.