Despite the fact that current guidelines for managing inflammatory bowel diseases do not devote attention to diet as a central element of treatment, there is an increasing amount of evidence that supports the role of diet in patients with IBD. A new nationwide cohort study shows the association between the level of inflammatory potential in diet and risk of Crohn’s disease.

Gut microbiota alterations in obesity remain the subject of debate. Writing in Nature, Vieira-Silva and colleagues found that the undesirable Bacteroides 2 enterotype was more frequent in people with a higher body mass index, but not if they were taking statins.

Gut microbiota, with its close links to metabolism and the immune system, could potentially be a factor that lies at the core of good health. This means it can be positioned at the heart of the processes that influence the risk of contracting different diseases.

Large inter-individual variability exists regarding how our gut microbiota responds to dietary intervention. New findings in mice and people with obesity show that ‘responders’ to inulin may be identifiable from their gut microbiota before they receive the intervention.