A recent review, led by Dr. Purnima S. Kumar from the Division of Periodontology at College of Dentistry at The Ohio State University in Columbus (USA), examines the role of periodontal pathobionts in initiating or exacerbating systemic diseases.

It has been previously reported that the gut microbiota could be involved in the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases such as diabetes. A recent study, led by Dr. Wolfgang zu Castell from the Scientific Computing Research Unit at Helmholtz Zentrum München in Munich (Germany) has found that butyrate may have a protective effect in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes.

A recent study of humans with celiac disease who were treated with helminths raised the possibility that an increase in microbial species richness (i.e. the number of different species present) could regulate gluten-induced inflammation in the gut.

Quality and quantity of gluten, maturity of gut functions influencing antigen trafficking and handling (e.g. pattern recognition receptors and barrier function) and changes in microbiome composition are factors that contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease.