It is already known that a reduction in gut microbial richness is the hallmark change of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, but how this dysbiosis is established in the HIV-exposed uninfected infant is poorly understood. A recent cross-sectional study, led by Dr. Grace M. Aldrovandi from the Children’s Hospital Los Angeles in Los Angeles (USA), suggests that perturbations in the infant gut microbiome may explain the greater risk of morbidity and mortality in uninfected babies born to HIV-positive mothers.

A recent study, led by Dr. Yue Zeng from the Department of Gastroenterology at Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine in Shanghai (China), has found that colorectal pre-neoplasic lesions may be the most important factor leading to mucosal adherent bacterial dysbiosis in patients with colorectal adenomas.