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Rural living, vaginal delivery, pet ownership, eating a wide variety of foods, low antibiotic use, and breast milk microbiota can prevent your children from developing a respiratory or food allergy. But what if differences in the gut microbiota could predict which children will grow out of their allergies?

The first 2-3 years of life are crucial for shaping childhood health. Amid others, the importance of early-life gut microbiota in infant’s development and later human health has been long speculated. In particular, bifidobacteria are playing an essential role in infant’s gut microbiota and immune system maturation that supports its probiotic use in that age span.

Many studies have reported changes in gut microbiome composition in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, including ulcerative colitis, when compared with healthy individuals. While that clearly raises the question about the key role played by gut microbes in IBD pathogenesis, we have yet to pinpoint the causative microbes and their mechanisms.