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Moderator: Francisco Guarner – Speakers: Karen Scott, Colin Hill   Karen Scott’s presentation was designed as a pedagogical introduction to the notion of prebiotics. She put forward the definition given in Gibson et al 2010:  “Prebiotics are a selectively fermented ingredient that results in specific changes in the composition and/or activity of the gastrointestinal microbiota, thus conferring benefit(s) upon host health”  Put into simple words, Prebiotics are “food” for the bacteria, normally living in the large intestine. Further to the definition, Karen Scott went on giving some elements of context about the gut microbiota.   She insisted on the fact that the gut microbiota was a complex and diverse bacterial…

Speakers: Dirk Haller (Germany), Balfour Sartor (USA)   Prof. Haller started his presentation by pointing out that “dysbiosis” is not a good term, because nobody knows what dysbiosis really means. To be able to understand what dysbiosis is, you would have to understand what the normal status quo is, and according to Prof. Haller that is not really well established. What is well established, as shown by a study with monozygotic twin cohorts, is a richness of gut bacteria in the healthy twins (cohorts from Germany and Lithuania), whereas in the ulcerative colitis-associated cohorts there is a dramatic decrease in bacterial richness. This drop in diversity can be observed in…

Speakers: Anne Vrieze (Netherlands), Lawrence Brandt (USA)   Dr Vrieze’s talk focused on faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) as a therapy for metabolic syndrome and C. difficile inflammation (CDI), under the guiding question whether the lacking diversity of the gut microbiota, which is assumed to play a major role in the disease onset, can be restored by the infusion of donor faeces.   After having pointed to the long history of FMT, which dates back to the 4th century BC, Dr Vrieze started with a description of the FMT procedure at the Academic Medical Center (AMC) Amsterdam. A crucial step is the prior screening of the donors in order to avoid…

Moderated by Paul W O'Toole and Joël Doré (@dorejoel)   Moderators aimed to make technical differences between the two categories of microbial community analysis, to help understand methods involved in gut microbiota analysis and to answer clinical questions involving analysis of the microbiota.   The human gut microbiota is the collection of bacteria, archea, virus and fungi. Paul O'Toole indicated that microbiome is a collection of genes inside microbiota and metagenomics is the method that consists in analyzing all genes of microbiota. Paul O'Toole summarized molecular tools available to investigate gut microbiota. There are two major approaches: studying phylogenetic marker using 16 rRNA genes amplification by pyrosequencing (called 16S barcodes…

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Moderator: Francisco Guarner – Speakers: Karen Scott, Colin Hill   Karen Scott’s presentation was designed as a pedagogical introduction to the notion of prebiotics. She put forward the definition given in Gibson et al 2010:  “Prebiotics are a selectively fermented ingredient that results in specific changes in the composition and/or activity of the gastrointestinal microbiota, thus conferring benefit(s) upon host health”  Put into simple words, Prebiotics are “food” for the bacteria, normally living in the large intestine. Further to the definition, Karen Scott went on giving some elements of context about the gut microbiota.   She insisted on the fact that the gut microbiota was a complex and diverse bacterial…

Speakers: Dirk Haller (Germany), Balfour Sartor (USA)   Prof. Haller started his presentation by pointing out that “dysbiosis” is not a good term, because nobody knows what dysbiosis really means. To be able to understand what dysbiosis is, you would have to understand what the normal status quo is, and according to Prof. Haller that is not really well established. What is well established, as shown by a study with monozygotic twin cohorts, is a richness of gut bacteria in the healthy twins (cohorts from Germany and Lithuania), whereas in the ulcerative colitis-associated cohorts there is a dramatic decrease in bacterial richness. This drop in diversity can be observed in…

Speakers: Anne Vrieze (Netherlands), Lawrence Brandt (USA)   Dr Vrieze’s talk focused on faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) as a therapy for metabolic syndrome and C. difficile inflammation (CDI), under the guiding question whether the lacking diversity of the gut microbiota, which is assumed to play a major role in the disease onset, can be restored by the infusion of donor faeces.   After having pointed to the long history of FMT, which dates back to the 4th century BC, Dr Vrieze started with a description of the FMT procedure at the Academic Medical Center (AMC) Amsterdam. A crucial step is the prior screening of the donors in order to avoid…

Moderated by Paul W O'Toole and Joël Doré (@dorejoel)   Moderators aimed to make technical differences between the two categories of microbial community analysis, to help understand methods involved in gut microbiota analysis and to answer clinical questions involving analysis of the microbiota.   The human gut microbiota is the collection of bacteria, archea, virus and fungi. Paul O'Toole indicated that microbiome is a collection of genes inside microbiota and metagenomics is the method that consists in analyzing all genes of microbiota. Paul O'Toole summarized molecular tools available to investigate gut microbiota. There are two major approaches: studying phylogenetic marker using 16 rRNA genes amplification by pyrosequencing (called 16S barcodes…

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